Reflective learning refers to a process in which students reflect on their learning adventures. This is a theory drawn from the learning theories of John Dewey, David Kolb, David Boud, and Donald Schon. Reflective learning is widely used in instruction, instruction, mentoring, and coaching.
Reflective learning seeks to help students create and clarify significance, based on the expertise of the student. The result can be changes in the behavior of the student — the goal of instruction and instruction, and change in the student’s comprehension of theories.
Reflective learning’s custom is straightforward. I will discuss reflective its applications in eLearning and learning, including both synchronous and asynchronous methods.
Fundamental reflective theory and practice
The practice involved in reflective learning is to give the learner opportunities to become more thoughtful about their own operation. The designer looks to encourage the learner by asking questions to engage in self-assessment. The queries could also relate about monitoring of demonstrations and references, examples, the expertise of the use of checklists, and the shared expertise of others, including other students and specialist performers.
Reflection ought to be part of a learning experience that is complete, rather than an exercise done by itself. A complete learning experience incorporates necessary events of instruction, for example engaging and maintaining the learner’s interest, presentation of core content sufficient to give the student fundamental structure and comprehension, connection of what’s being discovered to the student’s prior skills, knowledge, and expertise, and fresh expertise (activities) followed up with opinions.
Discussing how cognitive research has helped extend our comprehension of learning, Clark Quinn describes major approaches in learning models which help ensure, “Learning will be kept and recognized as proper to implement to all relevant scenarios.” (See the references at the end of the article.) One of these approaches is cognitive apprenticeship, which based on Quinn has reflection as a significant component:”… there need to be reflection opportunities for students to evaluate their own performance with all the abstract conceptualization. Reflection should encompass more than just opinions; ideally it must review across all the practice chances as a more overarching consideration of performance”
In a classroom or other “live” situation, maintaining the learning process, for example, the use of an expression on track is the task of a teacher or trainer. In eLearning, the designer gets the job of directing and creating learning experiences that are meaningful for the student. This takes some “thinking out of the box” in order to break from the standard didactic classroom instruction mindset. A vital element of a learning process involves intention toward a reflection and goal. In Learning to Solve Problems With Technology: A Constructivist Perspective, David Jonassen, and Jane Holland offer this guidance: “When students are actively and willfully trying to attain a cognitive goal, they believe and learn more because they are fulfilling an intention. Technologies have been used to support teacher objectives, but not those of students. Technologies need to engage students in articulating exactly what their learning aims are in any learning situation and supporting them. Learning systems should require learners to pronounce what they are doing, the choices they make, the strategies they use, and the responses they found. When students articulate what they have learned and reflect on the processes and decisions that were involved with the process, they know more and therefore are better able to utilize the knowledge they have assembled in new scenarios.”
Reflection in asynchronous eLearning
Asynchronous eLearning is standalone instruction. By including one or more activities that involve doing a task or other work and reflection in this type of eLearning could be facilitated:
Asking the learner to assess the outcome as well as performance.
Providing checklists and asking the learner to think about if all the steps or elements were completed, why and which ones have been challenging, and what will the learner do differently next time to obtain a greater outcome or to solve the difficulty.
Giving the learner access to a movie of an expert about what was educated, talking and asking the learner to evaluate the expert’s perspective.
Giving the learner access to a movie of a person performing work or a task and asking the learner to assess the operation or the outcome.
If students are completing the instruction at about the same time, set up a lrnchat on Twitter, or other synchronous assembly, and ask them to discuss their expertise.
Reflection in synchronous eLearning
Reflection in circumstances that are synchronous, where students are engaged in the same learning experience, is quite similar to classroom instruction. Some choices include:
Group discussion utilizing lrnchat, Zoom.us, or other group discussion applications, facilitated by an instructor, of the experience after every exercise or experience; the instructor must ask questions that focus on the expertise, not on providing “right” responses.
These are ideas. There are many ways to organize reflection.